Erzurum, which is the biggest city of Eastern Anatolia Region, is a very old settlement unit. The city, which was founded at the foot of Mount Palandöken, has gained importance in terms of winter tourism in recent years. The city, which is very rich in history and resembles a cultural center, carries an important tourism potential.
History Of Erzurum
Erzurum and its environs have witnessed intense Iskana and political events especially since the last Chalcolithic and Old Bronze Age. In the testimony of Karaz, Pulur and Güzelova excavations, it can be said that the way of life has been continuing for about six thousand years. District BC IV. It has also emerged that there is a very strong culture unity from the beginning.
It is estimated that Erzurum, which is the biggest city of Eastern Anatolia, was founded around 4900 BC. The region which includes Erzurum has been ruled by a wide variety of tribes and nations throughout the history including Urartular, Kimmerler, İskitler, Medler, Persians, Parths, Romans, Sasaniler, Araplar, Seljuks, Byzantines, Sasanis, Mongols, İlhanlılar and Sfaviler.
The first known name of Erzurum was the Theodosiopolis, which was excavated in the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emperor II.Theodosios (408-450), it was established in the place of the present Erzurum. IV. Was taken into the borders of the Roman Empire towards the end of the century and was founded by Anatolius, commander of the Eastern Ordnance, on 415, at Theodosios’ order.
The Name Of Erzurum
The name of today’s Erzurum is to separate Erzen from Meyyafarin (Silvan) and Siirt in the first phases of Erzen and Turkish domination following the conquest of Erzurum by the Seljuks and the migration of the ahalis to Theodosiopolis (Kalikala = Karin) was added to the Greek word to indicate that it belonged to the Greek word erzen. The city’s name is written in the form of Arzan al-Rum on the money printed by the Seljuks in Erzurum.
The Ottoman Empire
The Ottomans conquered the city and its surroundings ruled in these lands until 23, when the Republic of Turkey was founded. Until that time, Erzurum was developed with a lot of Ottomans Buildings.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha In Erzurum
Mustafa Kemal Pasha arrived in Erzurum on July 3, 1919, the first welcome ceremony was held in Ilıca, seventeen kilometers to the west of Erzurum. Mustafa Kemal Pasha visited the Erzurum Müdafaa-i Law Society on July 4 the day after his arrival in Erzurum. Mustafa Kemal Pasha held a meeting with his close friends on July 5, 1919. The meeting was attended by Karabekir Pasha, Rauf Bey, Former Governor Munir, Süreyya, etc…
Congress Of Erzurum
Erzurum Congress was held in Erzurum between July 23 – August 7, 1919. 62 delegates from 5 occupied eastern provinces Trabzon, Erzurum, Sivas, Bitlis and Van participated in the congress. Decisions taken at the congress for 2 weeks have been a decisive determinant in the line that followed the Liberation Struggle.
Taken Decisions In Congress Of Erzurum
Within the national boundaries a homeland is a whole, can not be broken. Against all kinds of foreign occupation and intervention, the nation will go to resistance and defense together. If the Istanbul government can not provide the independence of the country, a temporary government will be established. This government will be chosen by the national congress. If Congress is not convened, it will be elected by the Representatives Board, etc…
Castle Of Erzurum
Erzurum Castle comprises of a inner castle which provides security of the city and keeps guarding soldiers and an outer castle where the public is settled. The inner castle part succeeded to reach today. First construction of Erzurum Castle reaches back until Urartu Civilization of 900 B.C. The castle existing today is a work-of-art for The-odosius, the Byzantine Emperor. Saltukogulları built up the ”Castle Mescid” and a minaret here in 12th century. Suleyman the Magnificent and ll. Mahmut repaired the castle thoroughly. The minaret inside the castle was turned into a “Clock Tower” in 1848.
Çifte Minareli Medrese
Double Minaret Madrasa built at the end of the 13th century is one of the most important, remaining works-of-art of the Seljukian Civilization and a symbol of Erzurum as well. Ornamentations found particularly at the crown gate of the madrasa display the depth and the aesthetics perspective of Seljukian stone decoration. Palmet and rumi motives and two-headed eagle, the symbol of Seljukians, and tree of life figures draw attention. Half minarets which are mentioned in legends and the mosque’s ceramics are charming. Double Minaret Madrasa is one of the most important madrasas of its time. The mausoleum on the south of the yard is titled the biggest mausoleum of that period.
The work-of-art which was made built by Hoca Yakut Gazani in 1310 in İlhanlılar period is the biggest of the madrasas with a covered yard in Anatolia. The madrasa forms a great view a balanced architecture, large motive ornamentations, its crown gate protruding to the outsıde of the facade, with a sunken arch and carvings. Date leaves, leopard and eagle figures are major symbols of the Middle Asian Turks. 6 cradle vaulted rooms stand in line facing one another on both sides of the yard. Additionally one can reach to the minaret from the room on the right corner. Its geometrical motives and minaret adorned with ceramics draw attention. Yahudiye Madrasa have served as Museum of islamic Works-of-Art and Ethnography since 1994.
The Three Tombs
These Tombs are located in the South of Double Minarets Mosque and Great Mosque. These are four tombs including a small square tomb although it is known as Three Tombs. The other two of the group of Three Tombs were assumed to be built in the XIV Century. They have cylindrical body divided by moldings and conical upside covering with crypt on the bottom. These 3 Seljuk conical tombs (kumbets) are situated in a fenced off enclosure, although you can’t enter the tombs you can wander around their exterior. Sometimes the enclosure is locked, but it is possible to view from the outer fence. The left hand tomb is known as the Emir Sultan Turbesi – or mausoleum of Emir Sultan (also known as the circumsised tomb] and dates from the 12th century.(restored in 1950) it is different to the other two, in that it is decorated in 2 -tone stone. These 2 tombs date from 13th century, and probably belong to Emir Sultans sons.
Aziziye And Mecidiye Bastions
Erzurum bastions are important works-of-art carrying bitter memories of the 19th century. Bastions were established on 21 strategic points of the city against dangers from the east during the regression period of the Ottoman Empire. The Mecidiye bastion located in the North of Top Mountain with a 2042 m altitude was started to be built by Sultan Abdulmecit 1852. lt has a bowshape structure sitting on the North-south direction. The Aziziye Bastion, located in the South of Top Mountain, with a 2068 altitude were built by Fosfor Mustafa Pasha in 1852 to contribute thedefence of the city of Erzurum. The first part of the bastion was constructed in U shape. Its bases were found during a recent excavation. There Aziziye Bastion symbolize the chest to chest struggle of Turkish people against Russian army during Ottoman-Russian War in 1877-78. There are monumental graves for Nene Hatun, one of the famous heroes in the war, and the others in these emplacements.
Abdurrahman Ghazi Tomb
According to the narratives. Abdurrahman Ghazi, one of the companions of Prophet Mohammed, died a martyr when Islam army came to Erzurum under the commandment of Habib b. Mesleme in the time of Hz. 0mer. The mosque and tomb built in 1870 on his grave were renewed in recent years. The Mosque, attributed to Abdurrahman Ghazi, is located on the slope of Eğerli Mountain in the .5 km southeast of the city. The mosque and the tomb have become an important place for belief tourism, and also area around them has been used as a park.
Erzurum Congress Building
This three-floor building was built in U shape. This building located in the Congress Street was used as American School, Art school, Ataturk Construction School, Science School, Anatolian Art School and Social Science School. Today it is serving as a museum.
The Erzurum Congress was followed by a congress at Sivas attended by delegates from all over the Empire. The Sivas Congress applied the ideas presented at the Erzurum Congress to the whole of Anatolia and Rumelia. The Association for the Defence of the Rights of Eastern Anatolia was changed to the Association for the Defence of the Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia. The Erzurum Congress was the first gathering of Turkish delegates during the Turkish War of Independence which led to the abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate.
Although the Sivas congress expressed support for the Sultan, they made it clear that they believed the government and Grand Vezir in Constantinople was incapable of protecting the rights and territory of the Empire’s Turkish citizens. It set the tone of the conflict as one of Turkish nationalism and played a part in defining a new Turkish national identity for the emerging Republic of Turkey.
The Tortum Lake was formed with occlusion of the water in the valley, and it produced the waterfall in a splintery area. The waterfall has a magnificent view, especially in spring, with water falling from 60 m. height. Tortum Waterfall is one of the most remarkable natural treasures of Turkey next to Tortum Lake located in Tortum district, Tortum Waterfall, located towards the end of Tortum Lake, falls from a height of 48 meters and is one of the world’s highest and most beautiful waterfalls. It arose following a landslide off a mountain in the valley, which cutoff the stream’s flow, and is situated 105km from Erzurum. There are recreational areas around the waterfall for visitors and also an observation platform which allows the opportunity for a close sight of the waterfall. After the great waterfall with its drop of 48 meters, the river flowed over a series of cascades until its arrival in the Tev valley. The combination of cascades and waterfall is particularly beautiful.
Pasinler Thermal Springs
The spring water varies between 39-45 ° C and is bicarbonate, chlorinated, sodium, carbon dioxide and partly radioactive. Pasinler is located in the southern part of Kalesinin on both sides of Hasan castle tea. At the distance there are two side-by-side springs. Large Cermic in the south and Small Cermik in the north. According to the Great Cermic Book: It was built by Shah Bey from Dulkadiroğullar in 1565. Inside there is a medicinal water source and covered with a dome of 14.50 m in diameter. It was repaired by Sultan I. Murat in 1749 and some joints were built. 50 m from Büyük Çermik. Küçük Çermik, which is to the north, is on the shore opposite to Hasan Kale Çayın. It’s 1.5m in the middle of this girdle. Deep pool and 8 m. There is a domed space of the size. Small Çermik is said to have been built by Mirza Ali, brother of Shah Bey.
Narman Red Fairy Chimneys
This Fairy chimneys located in the 7 km south of Narman district have been formed as a result of the erosion of the soil sculpted by wind and raining. They are similar to the formations in the Arizona, United States. It is easy to transport Narman Pasinler, because they are on the highway. The oxidation of iron has a role in the sediments color become red. The Narman Fairy Chimneys in the Narman province of Erzurum, are notable for their resemblance to the Cappadocia region, which is famous for its fairy chimneys. and has been named the Cappadocia of the east of Turkey. Now Narman is seeking to develop as a tourist area, and gain a place in the UNESCO World Heritages list.
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